Imagine you have a secret, like a password, but you don’t want to reveal the actual password to someone who needs to verify it. Zero Knowledge Proofs allow you to prove that you know the correct password without actually showing the password itself. It’s like proving you have a special key to a locked door without letting anyone see the key.
Let’s say that we have a classic card deck of 52 cards, and I’ll take one card from the deck. And now I would like to prove you that this card is actually red. But I don’t want to give away the information about the number on that card or anything else about that. How does it work to convince you about that without giving away the number?
So, I will show you exactly 26 cards that are actually black.
So now you can count them, and if you do, you will notice that if there are 26 cards which are black, this one here must be red. So, this is an example of how zero-knowledge proof works and the intuition behind them.
Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies: ZKPs are frequently used in blockchain technologies to ensure privacy while still validating transactions. Zcash and Monero are examples of cryptocurrencies that incorporate ZKPs to provide users with enhanced privacy features.
Digital Identity: Zero Knowledge Proofs could be used in digital identity systems to prove certain attributes (such as age or citizenship) without revealing additional personal information.
Secure Messaging: Zero Knowledge Proofs can enhance the security of messaging apps by allowing users to prove their identity or access rights without revealing the contents of their messages.
Privacy-Preserving Payments: Payment apps and systems could use Zero Knowledge Proofs to verify payment amounts and transactions without exposing sensitive financial details.
Healthcare and Confidentiality: Medical apps or platforms might use Zero Knowledge Proofs to share health information with doctors or researchers without revealing the patient’s complete medical history
Zero Knowledge Proofs help maintain a balance between sharing necessary information and keeping your sensitive data private. It’s like having a secret handshake that proves you belong without revealing everything about yourself. They’re used in various apps and systems to ensure security, privacy, and trust without exposing sensitive information.